The indentured mobility of migrant women: How gendered protectionist laws lead Filipina hostesses to forced sexual labor by Rhacel Parrenas
In 2004, the U.S. State Department labeled migrant Filipina hostesses as sex trafficked persons. As the U.S. Trafficking in persons report (U.S. Department of State, 2004: 14) claimed, On arrival at their destination, victims are stripped of their passports and travel documents and forced into situations of sexual exploitation or bonded servitude. . . . For example, it is reported that Japan issued 55,000 entertainer visas to women from the Philippines in 2003, many of whom are suspected of having become trafficked victims. The phrase “trafficked victims” conjures up images of people who are held against their will, shackled, and unfree. Yet the definition of trafficking that has been advanced by the United Nations is more specific but at the same time much broader than enslavement. Trafficking consists of a three-part process: it must entail, first, the transportation of an individual; second, transportation that takes place under conditions of fraud, force, or deception; and third, transportation for the purpose of exploitation, with exploitation broadly meaning sexual exploitation, enslavement, forced labor, or servitude (United Nations, 2000: Article 3).
Indentured Mobility of Migrant Women
- Review: Children in the Global Sex Trade by Rhacel Parrenas
- Slavery, forced labor, debt bondage, and human trafficking: from conceptional confusion to targeted solutions by Ann Jordan
- USING INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW TO BETTER PROTECT VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING: THE PROHIBITIONS ON SLAVERY, SERVITUDE FORCED LABOR AND DEBT BONDAGE by Anne Gallagher
- Ending Forced Labor by Securing Immigrant Workers’ Rights by Denise Brennan
- Transgressing the Nation-State: The Partial Citizenship and “Imagined Global Community” of Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers by Rhacel Parrenas